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GRAMMAR HELPER


Nouns

A noun names a person, place, thing, or idea. The two types of nouns are common and proper.

Common nouns refer to one or more of a group of common objects. They may be singular or plural, and they are not capitalized unless they are at the beginning of a sentence.

Proper nouns are particular names, denoting a person or thing different from the common group. A proper noun begins with a capital letter.

Common

woman, car, street

Proper

Ms. Lee, Ford, Main Street


Pronouns

A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun, generally to avoid confusing repetition of nouns. Depending on the kinds of substitutions they perform, pronouns are divided into classes:

Personal pronouns: I see you.

Demonstrative pronouns: This is Joe’s shirt.

Interrogative pronouns: What did you see?

Relative pronouns: Who, which, what, and that are the most common relative pronouns. I found the car, which was in the garage.

Indefinite pronouns: examples are: one, any, some, another, each, either, none, such, both.

Reflexive pronouns: examples are: myself, yourself, himself, herself.

Numerical pronouns: For some kids, this trip was their first. (Number words are pronouns when they are used in the place of an understood noun.)

Reciprocal pronouns: each other (used with a comparison of two items); one another (used with more than two comparisons).

Adjective pronouns: Some players would have chosen another way.


Adverbs

An adverb is used to describe or modify a verb, and adjective, or another adverb. Most words ending in “ly”are adverbs, but a great number of adverbs do not end in “ly.” Adverbs tell how, when, where, how much, or they qualify a verb by specifying a number or degree.

They arrived late.

Turn left at the corner.


Verbs

A verb is an action word that tells of the subject’s action, or a word that expresses a state of being. There are two classes of verbs:

A transitive verb must have a direct object, and it carries the action from one person, place, thing, or idea to another.

The sea otter cracked the shell.

An intransitive verb needs no object to complete its meaning, and it carries no action from one thing to another.

The lobster crawls.


Conjunctions

A conjunction is a word that joins or connects other words, phrases, clauses, or sentences, A conjunction may also show relation between sentences. Common conjunctions include and, or, but, as, also, so, it, for, and until.

I worked until the job was done.


Parts of a sentence

Naming part – (Subject) names who or what the sentence is about.

Telling part – (Predicate) tells what action happened.

Interjections

An interjection is used to express sudden or strong feeling. It usually stands alone, and need not have grammatical connections with other words in a sentence,. An interjection is often followed by an exclamation point.

Hooray! Our team won.